When we talk about the beauty of our smile, one factor often falls out of our attention. This factor is gum diseases. Not much attention is paid to the role of the gums in the health of our mouth and teeth. Meanwhile, among other diseases of the oral cavity, problems with gums are as spread as caries. According to statistics, weak, defected gums lead to tooth loss in 50% medical cases. This is why it is so important to draw due attention to the health of the gums. Let’s consider what gum diseases are the most common, how to deal with them, and what symptoms they have.
Depending on the location of the inflammatory process, gum diseases in children and adults are classified into three groups. Each group has its own types and forms.
"Gingiva" is a Latin word, that means «gum». The ending «itis» indicates an inflammatory process. Gingivitis leads to inflammation in the mucous membrane. It happens pointwise, around a particular tooth. The disease has an acute and chronic forms. There are several types of gingivitis: atrophic, catarrhal, ulcerative-necrotic, hypertrophic. However, regardless of the type, the inflammatory processes do not affect dental tissues and do not destroy the teeth. For this reason, it is relatively easy to treat such gum diseases. It is important to pay attention to gingivitis in time, otherwise this condition may end up in more serious complications, like periodontitis.
Periodontitis provokes damage in the supporting apparatus of the tooth. In this condition, a ligament between the tooth root and the bone is destroyed. The gum gradually pulls away from the tooth, and an empty space forms between them. Remains of food accumulate in this «pocket». They cannot be removed without dental assistance. This condition may be accompanied by bleeding, swelling and increased sensitivity when chewing. The affected area may suppurate. This is seen clearly, if you press on the gum. The teeth gradually begin to loosen. If no measures are taken, they can even fall out. Acute forms of periodontitis can cause general malaise, nausea, weakness, fever.
According to statistics, parodontosis is seen in 8 out of 100 cases of all gum diseases. Quote often, it is confused with periodontitis, and not only by the patients, but even by the dentists. However, this condition is different. Although both diseases affect the same supporting part of the tooth, parodontosis is not an inflammation. The disease develops due to interruptions in the tissue blood supply. This process causes tooth dystrophy. At the same time, the gum starts to destroy as well. There is no redness, swelling, bleeding or any other physical discomfort. As a rule, parodontosis affects both jaws at a time. The treatment is quite troublesome and long-term, since it requires a complex therapy.